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His answer was that the emperor was at that very moment eating his dinner off one of the goddess's legs, and that he himself was the perpetrator of the sacrilege and owed his entire fortune to that piece of plunder.

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The first solid gold statue of a human being was one of himself set up by Gorgias of Leontini in the temple at Delphi about the 70th Olympiad. Gold is efficacious as a remedy in a variety Medicinal of ways, and is used as an amulet for wounded people and for infants to render less harmful poisonous charms that may be directed against them.

Gold has itself however a maleficent effect if carried over the head, in the case of chickens and the young of cattle as well as human beings. As a remedy it is smeared on, then washed off and sprinkled on the persons you wish to cure. Varro auctor est. Chrysocolla umor est in puteis, quos diximus, per venam auri defluens crassescente limo rigoribus hibernis usque in duritiam pumicis. The ash remaining is kept in an earthenware jar, and eruptions on the face may well be cleansed away by being smeared with this lotion a from the jar.

Pliny Natural History, Volume IX, Books 33 35 Loeb Classical Library No 394

It also cures fistulas and what are called haemorrhoids. With the addition of ground pumicestone it relieves putrid and foul- smelling ulcers, while boiled down in honey and git, and applied as a liniment to the navel it acts as a gentle aperient. According to Marcus Yarro gold is a cure for warts. Gold-solder 6 is a liquid found in the ooid- shafts we spoke of, flowing down along a vein of gold, with a slime that is solidified by the cold of winter even to the hardness of pumicestone.

A more highly spoken of variety of the same metal has been ascertained to be formed in copper mines, and the next best in silver-mines. A less valuable sort also with an element of gold is also found in lead mines. Natural gold-solder, known as ' grape,' differs very greatly from the artificial in hardness, and neverthe- less it also takes a dye from the plant called yellow- weed. Cum tinxere pictores, orobitin vocant eiusque duo genera faciunt: elutam, 1 quae servatur in lomentum, et liquidam globulis sudore resolutis.

Natural History, Volume IX: Books 33-35

It is pounded in a mortar and then passed through a fine sieve, and afterwards milled and then sifted again with a finer sieve, everything that does not pass through the sieve being again treated in the mortar and then milled again. The powder is all along separated off into bowls and steeped in vinegar so as to dissolve all hardness, and then is pounded again and then rinsed in shells and left to dry. Then it is dyed by means of ' splittable ' alum a and the plant above mentioned and so given a colour before it serves as a colour itself.

It is important how absorbent it is and ready to take the dye ; for if it does not at once catch the colour, scytanum and turbistum b must be added as well — those being the names of two drugs producing absorption. Both of these kinds are made in Cyprus, but the most highly valued is in Armenia and the second best in Macedonia, while the greatest quantity is produced in Spain, the highest recommendation in the latter being the quality of reproducing as closely as possible the colour in a bright green blade of corn.

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We have before now seen at the shows given by the emperor Nero the sand of the circus sprinkled with gold- a. Chrysocollam et aurifiees sibi vindicant adglutinando auro, et inde omnes appellatas similiter virentes dicunt. Before applying the sandy variety they put on a preliminary coating of black dye and pure white chalk a : these serve to hold the gold-solder and give a softness of colour. As the pure chalk is of a very unctuous consistency and extremely tenacious owing to its smoothness, it is sprinkled with a coat of black, to prevent the extreme whiteness of the chalk from imparting a pale hue to the gold-solder.

The yellow gold-solder is thought to derive its name from the plant yellow-weed, which is itself often pounded up with steel-blue and applied for painting instead of gold-solder, making a very inferior and counterfeit kind of colour. Gold-solder is also used in medicine, mixed with wax and olive oil, for cleansing wounds ; likewise applied dry by itself it dries wounds and draws them together. It is also given in cases of quinsy or asthma, to be taken as an electuary with honey. It acts as an emetic, and also is used as an ingredient in salves for sores in the eyes and in green plasters for relieving pains, and drawing- together scars.

References

The goldsmiths also use a special gold- solder of their own for soldering gold, and according to them it is from this that all the other substances with a similar green colour take the name. The mixture is made with Cyprian copper verdigris and the urine of a boy c who has not reached puberty with the addition of soda d ; this is ground with a pestle d Sodium carbonate.

Contexique par est reliqua circa hoc, ut universa naturae contingat admiratio.

Ab his argenti metalla dicantur, quae sequens insania est. It is in this way used in soldering the gold called silvery-gold ; a sign of its having been so treated is if the application of borax gives it brilliance. On the other hand ' coppery ' gold shrinks in size and becomes dull, and is difficult to solder ; for this purpose a solder is made by adding some gold and one seventh as much silver to the materials above specified, and grinding them up together.

While speaking of this it will be well to annex the remaining particulars, so as to occasion all-round admiration for Nature. The proper solder for gold is the one described ; for iron, potter's clay ; for copper in masses, cadmea a ; for copper in sheets, alum; for lead and marble, resin. Black lead how- ever is joined by means of white lead, b and white lead to white lead by using oil ; stagnum c likewise with copper filings, and silver with stagnum.

For smelting copper and iron pine-wood makes the best fuel, though Egyptian papyrus can also be used; gold is best smelted with a fire made of chaff. Water puts heat into quicklime and Thracian stone, d and olive-oil puts it out; fire however is most readily quenched by vinegar, mistletoe and eggs. Earth it is quite impossible to ignite, but charcoal gives a more powerful heat if it is burned till it goes out and then catches fire again. XXXL After these details let us speak about the silver. Silver is only found in deep shafts, and raises no hopes of its existence by any signs, giving off no shining sparkles such as are seen in the case of gold.

WO Reperitur in omnibus paene provineiis, sed in Hispania puleherrimum, id quoque in sterili solo atque etiam montibus, et ubieumque una inventa vena est, non proeul invenitur alia, hoc quidem et in omni fere materia, unde metalla Graeci videntur dixisse. Est et lapis in iis venis, cuius vomica 1 I'. Sillig: Accitani con i. It is lead sulphide, the most useful lead ore.

Also when submitted to the same process of firing, part of the ore precipitates as lead while the silver floats on the surface, like oil on water. Silver is found in almost all the provinces, but the finest is in Spain, where it, as well as gold, occurs in sterile ground and even in the mountains ; and wherever one vein is found another is afterwards found not far away. This indeed also occurs in the case of almost every metal, and accounts it seems for the word ' metals ' used by the Greeks.

Along the whole of this distance watermen are posted who all night and day in spells measured by lanterns bale out the water and make a stream. The vein of silver nearest the surface is called ' the raw. The exhalations c from silver mines are dangerous to all animals, but specially to dogs. Gold and silver are more beautiful the softer they are. It surprises most people that silver traces black lines. There is also a mineral found in these Quicksilver. In isdem argenti metallis invenitur, ut proprie dicatur, 4 spumae lapis candidae nitentisque, non tamen tralucentis ; stimi appellant, alii stibi, alii alabastrum, aliqui larbasim.

Poinsinet de Sivry : hydrargyro. It acts as a poison on everything, and breaks vessels by penetrating them with malignant corruption. All substances float on its surface except gold, which is the only thing that it attracts to itself; conse- quently it is also excellent for refining gold, as if it is briskly shaken in earthen vessels it rejects all the impurities contained in it.

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When these blemishes have been thus expelled, to separate the quicksilver itself from the gold it is poured out on to hides that have been well dressed, and exudes through them like a kind of perspiration and leaves the gold behind in a pure state. Consequently when also things made of copper are gilded, a coat of quicksilver is applied underneath the gold leaf and keeps it in its place with the greatest tenacity : but if the gold- leaf is put on in one layer or is very thin it reveals the quicksilver by its pale colour.


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Otherwise quicksilver is not to be found in any large quantity. In the same mines as silver there is found Antimony. It is of two kinds, male and female. Yis eius adstringere ae refrigerare, principalis autem circa oculos, namque ideo etiam plerique platyophthalmon id appellavere, quoniam in calliblepharis mulierum dilatet oeulos, et fluctiones inhibet oculorum exulcerationesque farina eius ac turis cumnii admixto.

XXXI V. Antimony has astringent and cooling properties, but it is chiefly used for the eyes, since this is why even a majority of people have given it a Greek name meaning ' wide-eye,' because in beauty- washes for women's eyebrows it has the property of magnifying the eyes.


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Made into a powder with powdered frankincense and an ad- mixture of gum it checks fluxes and ulcerations of the eyes. It also arrests discharge of blood from the brain, and is also extremely effective with a sprinkling of its powder against new wounds and old dog-bites and against burns if mixed with fat and litharge of silver, or lead acetate a and wax. It is prepared by being smeared round with lumps of ox dung and burnt in ovens, and then cooled dowTi with women's milk and mixed with rain water and pounded in mortars.

And next the turbid part is poured off into a copper vessel after being purified with soda. The lees are recognized by being full of lead, and they settle to the bottom of the mortars and are thrown away.


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Then the vessel into which the turbid part was poured off is covered with a cloth and left for a night, and the next day anything floating on the surface is poured off or removed with a sponge. The sediment on the bottom is con- sidered the choicest part and is covered with a linen cloth and put to dry in the sun but not allowed to become very dry, and is ground up a second time in the mortar and divided into small tablets. Scoriam in argento Graeci vocant hel- cysma. Miiller : acre dies B 1 : hac re B 2 : om.

Mayhoff, Really into metallic antimony, mistaken for lead. Others pound it in water and strain it through three thicknesses of linen cloth and throw away the dregs, and pour off the liquor that comes through, collecting all the deposit at the bottom, and this thev use as an ingredient in plasters and eye-washes.